The versatile VisionHawk™ is a server-based, digital video recording system that gathers, transfers, stores and retrieves evidence.
No other system provides law enforcement and court officials with better control or easier, faster management of critical evidence.
This technology brings tremendous advantages to law enforcement.
Video files can easily be shared with court officials and prosecutors while maintaining the integrity of the original video from the moment it enters the camera lens. This system is powerful.
It is secure. And it is easy to use for departments of all sizes.
It is VisionHawk™ ... a state of the art video system solution with scalability into future technologies ... and there is no equal.
Take A Load Off.
The system has capacity to record over multiple shifts but evidence data can rapidly be shared. As situations warrant, authorized personnel can have immediate access to the server from their desks and distribute information by CD-ROM, DVD and email mediums. Videotape storage and retrieval hassles are eliminated.
Lights, Camera, Action - Made Easy.
You’ll quickly get the picture. True DVD broadcast quality video. Dual cameras that can record separately or at the same time. Five microphones to aid two-channel audio recording, inside and out of the car. Overhead-mounted forward camera allows recording in any direction. Rear focused low light camera, with wide-angle view, provides backseat coverage. And there is concurrent record and review capability.
VisionHawk™ provides completely defensible evidence with technology far surpassing existing systems. No editing software exists that can manipulate or tamper with its exclusive video editing security. Video frames are checked using Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) technology to verify integrity and server software sends alert if even one frame is altered.
Video Transfer Options.
Upload your secure data by wireless transfer from car to station, by hard wire Ethernet transfer or by removable hard drive. You choose the transfer method that best meets the needs and preferences of your agency or department.
Room For Your Stuff.
Enclosed system components mount inside the car. They are protected in a compact, key-locked, galvanized steel vault that is easily secured in place without removing the passenger seat. Removable hard drive versions mount in your car console.
GPS data is standard to the system and can be interfaced with dispatch for other applications. Also, auxiliary data options are available to enable interface with most radar and MDTs. Common copy and paste functions save time and improve report accuracy and consistency.
Record Around The Clock.
In addition to Pre-Event Recording support, VisionHawk™ offers the powerful evidence-gathering capability of Background Recording. This is the system’s unique capability to capture data-documented snapshots from your cars – all the time. In other words, it is an after the fact second chance – for a second look.
DIGITAL IN-CAR VIDEO FOR POLICE & LAW ENFORCEMENT VEHICLES
Larry Sharp, Director of Engineering, IPT Inc.
POLICE VEHICLE VIDEO RECORDING HISTORY
Recording video from within a police car began in the early 1980s with the advent of portable video cassette recorders intended for the consumer market. A handful of companies set out to utilize this equipment in the police environment. Many lessons were learned regarding the harsh and RF-rich environment of a police car and the suitability of standard consumer-grade VCR’s. Wireless microphones were ‘borrowed’ from uses in other industries with similar results regarding suitability and longevity in the police environment. Service became a key issue since most of these products suffered high failure rates when used every day in the hot, cold, wet, dry, dirty, and generally physically demanding mobile environment.
By the mid-1990s, two basic systems became standard in the market: a VHS VCR permanently installed in the car and tethered to power, a control unit, a camera, and a monitor; or a camcorder (most using 8mm) in a quick-release mount tethered to power and a control unit. The in-car VCRs tout better security (with trunk installations) and the removable camcorders tout expanded versatility, higher quality recordings due to better media, and less tape storage requirements. Both activate the same way and do the same job. In order to help an officer activate the video system, various triggers are common to most video systems: activation of sirens, overhead lights, officer-worn audio transmitter, or manual activation by the officer.
As the price of computer storage came down and it became possible to store short videos on a personal computer, history repeated itself in the early 2000s. A few companies, unaware of police budgets and with systems not hardened for the police environment, introduced ‘digital’ systems. Many of these newcomers introduced large, expensive, finicky ‘systems’ that suffered from the same high failure rates as the early tape-based systems as well as a host of new problems like improper in-car operating systems and a lack of proper back-end design.
Now, most manufacturers of tape-based systems are using their experience to build digital video systems that are suitable for police work. Departments considering digital video systems should take care when selecting a manufacturer. All digital systems are new and relatively unproven at this time – any new systems should be given a trial run at your agency prior to large purchases. Bid specs should include a ‘proven system’ clause to protect an agency from unknowingly becoming a ‘beta tester’ for unproven equipment from an unproven vendor. These systems are basically computers designed for video, so your agency should have its IT experts involved in this purchase, as they will be involved in supporting the digital video files and server hardware. If computer tech support isn't’t available within your agency, then some technically savvy person in the department needs to be responsible for the proper and best use of the equipment.
POLICE VIDEO VALUE
Police departments quickly realized the value of video. The value of video recording in a police car is great for any officer-citizen contact, citizen transport in police car, and probable cause related questions. Typical benefits are increased conviction rates, less time in court proceedings and litigation, increased officer awareness of their conduct, training situations and reinforcement, and overall easier understanding of any (recorded) situation.
DIGITAL VIDEO ADVANTAGES OVER TAPE-BASED SYSTEMS
Perhaps the foremost benefit to law enforcement of the move to digital video is the back-end system used to file, categorize, search, retrieve, archive, and copy the video files. A proper system needs to perform all of these functions in order to deal with the massive amounts of storage required for the digital video files. Other advantages are:
far fewer moving parts with a digital video recorder, leading to increased
higher-capacity and more compact storage media
higher-quality video – the worst-case digital video should be better than the best-case VHS video
the ability to record associated data, such as GPS-derived location, officer and department ID, and radar speeds as data within each frame and not as a simple video overlay
pre-event recording capabilities
more authentication and security capabilities
less chance of a criminal understanding the system and disabling it or destroying evidence
ease of sharing video files (on CD, DVD, or computer networks) with no loss of quality
easy transition to lossless wireless video transmission when technically and economically feasible
With the technological advances in computer capabilities, the move from tape-based video systems for law enforcement vehicles is becoming a desire for most and an affordable choice for many. As the use of video tape continues to decline, all video recording will be moving to digital storage.
The video needs to be preserved as any other evidence would be. The chain of evidence should be provable from the instant video is recorded until the moment it is viewed. . There will undoubtedly be some effort to prove the possibility of tampering with digital video due to the proliferation of computers and easily obtainable software designed for this purpose. In actuality, this would be a very tedious project to change hundreds or thousands of pixels on hundreds, if not thousands of individual video frames. Nonetheless, efforts should be taken to protect the video evidence. A proper system architecture and departmental policy and procedure can accomplish this for the video files. Physical security of the hard drive, both in the car and its trip to the station (in the case of a removable drive system) will protect the video files to the point they are electronically “logged” into evidence, much as a video tape was. Proper system architecture can eliminate any security breaches via the Ethernet connection in the car. In addition, the in-car system should generate a checksum (or other provable means to detect file tampering) for each video file as it is recorded. The server should be able to verify this checksum when the file is stored and viewed. Watermarking the video will not provide “file” security – the watermark proves that a particular frame came from the in-car system, but cannot prove that frames have not been added, deleted, or modified. Wireless file transmission will also require additional security means. Encrypting the entire video file can provide an enhanced level of security but may not be needed with proper system architecture. More complex security schemes mean that video files are higher processed, increase in size, and take longer to upload, store, and retrieve. The goal here to simply be able to prove that no one had access or the opportunity to tamper with any of the files on the hard drive or on the department server at any time. Once the file is transferred to the server you have the same goal. The “original” video (file) was transferred to the server and should be treated as evidence at that point. Restricted access to the server itself and very restricted, or read-only LAN access to the files can accomplish this exactly like a video tape stored your evidence area. File copies should be made on nonrenewable media with identifying tags noting media originality, time and date of creation.
HOW DIGITAL VIDEO WORKS
Digital video involves the conversion of sequenced video stills into digital computer files. A charge-coupled device (CCD) is a small 1/4” to 1/3” rectangular piece of silicon that is segmented into an array of individual light-sensitive cells called photosites. Each photosite relates to a small picture element, or pixel. Typical CCDs used in law enforcement video systems are divided into 300,000 to 500,000 pixels -- all on a 1/4” piece of silicon. Each photosite is actually a photodiode which converts light photons to an electrical signal proportional to the amount of light hitting the surface of the CCD. Color information is gathered by either splitting the light into 3 primary colors and having a CCD for each color (in expensive “3 chip” cameras) or by using color filters (typically the Bayer filter) and mathematical interpolation of adjacent pixels to derive the color and luminance information. Then the image information is moved from the CCD into memory, and then in most cases converted to a standard NTSC composite or S-video signal for interoperability with standard video equipment. S-video, short for super-video, is a signal format where the luminance (Y, brightness) information is transmitted separately from the chrominance (C, color), also termed Y/C video. S-video signal format allows for better quality video and reduced moiré pattern degradation compared to composite video.
The next step is to feed that video signal to the Digital Video Recorder (DVR). Here the video is converted from analog to digital and encoded (compressed) with one of a variety of encoding standards. High quality DVRs will use a digital signal processor (DSP) or other high speed processor designed specifically for video processing and an operating system designed primarily for efficient processor use. With proper system design, compressor-decompressors (codecs) can be upgraded via software as compression theories and technologies are enhanced. The same processor will also handle the interface with storage media such as a hard drive or DVD recorder. Additional data such as global positioning satellite (GPS) latitude and longitude, department and officer ID, date, time, etc. can then be added digitally to each frame. Additional security-related data can also be added to each frame to help confirm the authenticity of the video file from the moment it is saved to the hard drive.
The quality of video in the digital realm depends on a variety of factors: lens quality, low-light capability, CCD size and quality, resolution, compression and frame rate. The first 3 all relate to the camera chosen and the last 3 relate to the trade-offs between video quality and bit rate, i.e. digital storage requirements and budget. However, the worst-case digital video recording should be better than best-case VHS tape recordings.
The video file is essentially a group of sequential video frames. A ‘D1’ frame of 720 pixels by 486 pixels would have 720x486 or 349,920 pixels. Add to this the luminance and color information for each of these pixels using 8 to 24 bit sampling. Using 16 bit YUV sampling, 349,920 pixels x 16 bits/pixel / 8bits/Byte = 699840 Bytes/frame = ~0.7 MBytes. Without compression, a 1 second D1 video file will require 0.7 Mbytes/frame x 30 frames/sec = 21 Mbytes (plus a small amount of overhead). A common 40 GB hard drive would only store about half an hour of video. As you can see, uncompressed video files consume a large amount of storage space.
Resolution of a digital frame is defined as the width in pixels by the height in pixels. Higher resolutions allow for a larger image display while retaining a fine degree of image definition. Advances in technology have resulted in fairly inexpensive digital still cameras capable of over 1 million pixel (megapixel) resolution.
The highest video quality expected in a police car would be D1, defined as 720 by 486 pixels. This compares well with the NTSC broadcast television standard of 720 by 480 pixels. This is equivalent to an 0.4 megapixel digital camera taking 30 pictures per second! The next lower semi-standard resolution is VGA, usually defined as 640 by 480 pixels or about 0.3 megapixel. The lowest resolution of much value in police vehicle video systems would be Common Intermediate Format or CIF, a standard used in videoconferencing systems and defined as 352 by 240 pixels or about 0.08 megapixel. A CIF-resolution picture can be enlarged to a usable size while retaining enough detail to be usable for law enforcement and prosecution. There are resolutions in between, above, and below these three. These are typical standards. Lower resolution than CIF, such as 1/4CIF, can be obtained, however their use should be discouraged due to lack of distinguishable details needed for prosecution.
Video files are made up of many still photos per second. The human eye begins to lose the ability to distinguish change of one frame to another at about 15 frames per second (fps). The typical North American standard is 30 fps, based on the television system and its reliance on the 60 Hz power grid. The USA and Japan follow the National Television Standards Committee (NTSC) standard of 30 fps while Europe, China, and Australia follow the Phase Alternate Line (PAL) standard of 25 fps. Many digital tape formats use 25 fps. Obviously, reducing the frame rate from 30 fps to 25 fps will reduce your storage requirements by 5/30ths or 16.6%. The ability to further reduce the frame rate for certain situations can be very useful in getting maximum utilization of your storage capacities. Legacy CCTV recorders usually use a very low frame rate in order to record for long periods of time. They also employ a frame sharing method to expand the number of video inputs. These usually do not provide full motion video on multiple inputs or motion related compression.
Video files get very large and are almost always compressed. Large files fill up the hard drive, slow the transfer process to the server and fill up the server hard drives. A variety of compression standards are now used. They all attempt to do the same thing and all have trade-offs between quality and bit rate (and associated video file size). MPEG-2 is probably the most standardized for high quality video – DVD movies and satellite TV both use MPEG-2 compression. Wavelet and MJPEG compression provide similar results to MPEG-2. MPEG-1 results in a VHS-quality video. MPEG-4 is the ‘newest’ standard for video and provides a quality between MPEG-2 and MPEG-1.
Video compression typically uses a hybrid coding approach accomplished by motion estimation, discrete cosine transform (DCT), and quantization. DCT uses mathematical algorithms to rank small blocks of data based on their repetitive nature across the frame and give each block a code whose size is based on the number of elements in the frame. For example, if most of the frame is blue sky, then the code for the color of ‘blue sky’ is a very small number that is repeated multiple times.
Motion estimation eliminates temporal redundancy of sequential video frames and is therefore a central part of the MPEG-1, MPEG-2, and MPEG-4 standards. Areas in the frame with little or no motion are stored once and only updated when the scene changes, instead of being stored multiple times. Panning the camera (such as the police car turning a corner) effectively reduces the effectiveness of motion compression to nothing. When the car (camera) is sitting still, motion compression works very effectively.
The trade-off here is quality. The best compression is one that greatly reduces file size with no apparent reduction of video quality. Too much compression and picture quality suffers; you begin to see moving blocks and un-natural shifting of colors. Most DVRs allow for some fine tuning or selection of various compression settings to suit your needs based on all of the other variables. For example, you could select a higher resolution frame and more compression, so the video file will take about the same amount of drive space. However, the picture would have more compression artifacts. To determine video quality, simply observe some ‘typical’ videos on the largest display (with appropriate video settings) with the picture at its largest viewing size.
The basic digital in-car system includes the same components as its analog predecessors, namely a front-facing camera, a recording device and some form of activation and control. Due to the NTSC analog output on most of the cameras suitable for these systems, the same camera could be used on either system. The biggest change in the car is the DVR and its method of control. The transport of video from the car, now in a digital form, can go the analog route with a removable drive, an Ethernet cable strung between the car and a parking lot-mounted box, or a wireless transfer from the car to the station. An automated logging process should log the files as they are moved to the server in the station. At this point, the original video files are available in the station for viewing, filing, copying, and archiving. All file activity should be logged and file deletion should follow strict guidelines, both built into the back-end software and within policy and procedure setup for each department. Once files are properly deleted they are not retrievable. The beauty of the move to digital is the capabilities of this back-end system. With a robust, well designed system capable of dealing with multi-terabytes of files, you should be able to quickly, seamlessly and easily find, view, and share any file on the system.
There appears to be some issue with the ease of modifying or changing digital video files. This can easily be overcome with the proper system architecture and departmental policy and procedure. Files can be secured in a number of ways to deter any file tampering and files can be checked to detect any file tampering. The files should be protected as any evidence would be once they are secured in the agency servers and all file activity logged. The original video file will exist on the server. Copies of files should be certified by the agency and copied to non rewritable media. A time stamp should be on each frame and the sequential frame numbers should help prove the completeness and integrity of the file.
VEHICLE SOFTWARE AND HARDWARE
The in-car DVR is essentially a computer that accepts video and audio from one or more sources, compresses the information, and saves the information as video files on a hard drive. The better DVRs will use a processor designed specifically for this job, unlike a laptop or desktop processor which is designed for a variety of tasks. Additionally, the DVR uses an embedded operating system optimized for fast, efficient, and reliable operation of these tasks only. This software will also handle controlling the camera and recording of additional text data, such as GPS, radar, and sensor activation.
At present, the best storage technology for the police vehicle is the hard drive. Solid state storage (as used in aircraft or military “black-box” event recorders) is available in these large capacities but is prohibitively expensive. DVD recorders, though capable of operating in a car, cannot be relied upon without a hard drive to take care of the immediate recording. The write speed of available DVD recorders is simply not fast enough to directly record high resolution, fluid frame rate video. Additionally, a DVD (at present) can only hold 4.7Gbyte per side or only a few hours of video, even at CIF resolution. Also, DVD drives are not available that can operate in as rugged an environment as the hard drive. Finally, a DVD recording standard does not yet exist; there are a variety of competing and conflicting standards from different manufacturers, meaning certain obsolescence for some formats. The DVD is at present only a digital substitute for a video tape.
The on-screen data can be handled separately with a digital system, so each piece of data can be used as a search field after video files are uploaded to a central server. Activation of siren, overhead lights, brakes, or audio transmitter; longitude and latitude from GPS; officer ID and department; time, and date can all be saved with each frame of video. Most systems allow for a radar with a standard RS-232 output to provide data to be added to the video file. Since the data is handled separately from the video, some systems may allow the choice of viewing it or not, although it should always be recorded. The data never actually covers any part of the video as does a simple overlay. Viewing a frame-by-frame video will show the exact part of the second that an event occurs. Adding the data info into the video frame also greatly adds to the security of the video file by making the frames and files non-standard to video editing software.
Background recording is the ability to take ‘snapshots’ over the entire course of a shift or day, or any time the unit is on, at any prescribed interval, such as 1 frame per minute. These could be used for a variety of purposes from reconstruction to logistics and planning. By overlay with a mapping program, the vehicle’s daily movement could be extracted from the background video file. Reconstruction of a moment in time could be analyzed, knowing the location of every car at precisely the same time. Any or all vehicles within a certain area could be called up and video examined for either a major event or something inconsequential or missed at the time.
Most digital video systems allow for some period of pre-event recording whereby the camera is always on and preserving a moving window of time in live memory. When the video recording is activated, this memory is added to the beginning of the just-activated recording, thus recording the immediate events preceding the activation of the camera. In most cases, video of the ‘probable cause’ can be added to the reason for the stop with only a few seconds of pre-event recording (prior to when the officer flips on the overhead lights or otherwise activates the system). More is not necessarily better in this case as a considerable amount of storage capacity could be wasted on unneeded minutes multiplied by each activation in every vehicle. Background recording could be used for this purpose as well.
VEHICLE INTERIOR RECORDING
A second video input may be incorporated in some systems to allow a view of the rear seat area or the majority of the interior of the police car. This can be very useful during citizen transport to have video evidence of officer conduct as well as citizen or prisoner conduct. Internal microphones should record the audio in the interior as well. Overt and obvious recordings may encourage prisoners to behave themselves and covert recording (no expectation of privacy in a police car) can be used as evidence should something transpire while the officer is in or out of the car.
UPLOAD FROM VEHICLE TO SERVER
Uploading video files from the vehicle to the server can be accomplished in 3 different ways:
Hard wired Ethernet – The officer parks his vehicle and plugs a cable
from the car into a box on the side of the building or in the parking lot.
Wireless Ethernet – The vehicle begins automatic wireless upload when within wireless range of the station (100’ or so) and continues until all files are transferred or the vehicle drives out of range again. This is the most non-invasive transfer, but will cost more for hardware.
Removable Hard Drive – The hard drive in the car is sized to hold 40 hours or more of video and is exchanged with an empty drive on a periodic schedule. The drive containing video files is hot-inserted into the server and all files uploaded very quickly. Then the now-empty drive returns to the pool of available drives.
The upload speed from vehicle to station is a variable depending on many factors: compression, resolution, frame rate, hours of video stored in the car, method of upload, number of simultaneous uploads, and server write speed. If the vehicle will be parked for a shift or more, then upload speed will not be a concern. Removable drives can eliminate any upload problems, but add the susceptibility of data loss due to hard drive damage. Optimum upload would be fast wireless. If a reasonable amount of video is stored between trips to the station, this could easily automate the entire process. Additionally, wireless upload facilities could be installed in multiple locations with high bandwidth connections back to the server.
With no limitations on storage space, the optimal use of a vehicle recording system would be to simply record everything all the time an officer is in the car. Everything is captured, filed, and stored for any future need. Video files could be categorized and prioritized at upload time, considering its possible usefulness in the future. Low priority video files, not expected to be of any use, could be purged after a few days or weeks. Video files with any possible value could be kept live on a server for a period of time, and then archived to appropriate media for long term storage.
The problem (at present) with recording everything is the massive amount of server space needed and the need for a full time person at the server to categorize, sort, archive and share or copy video files. In addition this person needs to maintain the hardware, software, and data and interface with the video system manufacturer. The system can automate many functions but someone at the department needs to be ultimately responsible for the constant availability of the server, both for the uploading vehicles and for the personnel needing access to the file storage.
Today (2003), storage costs have dropped to the point where a fully usable and affordable system can be configured for a department to make the switch from tape to digital systems. A configurable recording system would be advantageous to take advantage of the decreasing costs of digital storage, so the quality and resolution could be increased as storage prices decrease. The storage requirements are not static but dependent upon many factors including:
how many vehicles, how many hours of video per day per vehicle, how many days
to save video
video resolution, frame rate, and compression settings on the recorder
policy regarding when video files are deleted
With a secured video server, redundancy and mirroring (such as RAID or mirrored LAN available files) also affect the total system storage capacities on a properly designed system. It doesn't’t take too many cars to require a multiple terabyte (1 TeraByte = 1000GByte) server. Fortunately, market demands (Moore’s Law) ensure that hard drives get cheaper all the time. The hardware for multiple terabyte servers is not prohibitively expensive.
Costs can be reduced by archiving older video files to DVD-RAM or magnetic tape. DVD-RAM is probably the best back-end archival media due to its capacity/cost ratio and immunity to magnetic fields. However its small capacity for video files and slow write speed make it unsuitable for massive amounts of video storage or backup. Magnetic tape can be cost-effectively used to back up digital video files as data (not analog video) for long-term storage.
The needs and desires of the department regarding length of temporal storage, amount of very long term storage, access to video from the LAN, and other factors will need to be addressed before designing the proper back-end server and storage solution.
The server operating system should be capable or accessing a very large array of drives. The video file database should allow for easy file manipulation, searching, playing, and archiving of the video files. Logging of all file operations should take place and secure logins to the system should be required. The security of all video files depends on this system and users should be accountable for their actions, necessitating a secure login procedure and appropriate policies and procedures for the departmental use of the system. The files can be networked or mirrored on a networked drive array, further enhancing the security of these files. Purging of old files should be done in an orderly and logged manner to ensure nothing is accidentally deleted.
Supplying a copy of a video file to anyone for court or insurance purposes can be accomplished with a CD, DVD, FTP server, Web server, or other electronic means. Email is probably not suitable for video files, due to the large file sizes involved, however, single video frames can easily be sent by email. The video files can be in any standard format for a computer or DVD player, or a proprietary format with a manufacturer-supplied player application for a computer. Things to consider when choosing this output format would be the hardware the video would most likely be played on, how to display the text data (speed, time, date, etc.), the evidentiary aspect (a provable un-tampered copy), and privacy issues. Most systems should be able to accommodate your needs by transcoding from the native file format on the server to whatever format you desire for copies. The back-end system should log all copies made. With an FTP or Web server, your department could make video file copies available to anyone with secured access from their PC with a broadband connection.
The move from analog to digital recorders is inevitable. Magnetic tape will disappear over the next few years as well as tape-based camcorders and video cassette recorders. The DVD is replacing VHS tape in consumer electronics, but its small capacity and non-standardization makes it impractical as the basis for a law enforcement system. Eventually solid state storage will be available, economical, and fast enough to use as the basic car storage, thus replacing the hard drive which is the only remaining component having moving parts (other than the iris and zoom portions of the camera). The computer/server will be around for many years as the basis for the in-station video file repository. As the cost per megabyte of storage decreases, video files can be kept indefinitely especially in relation to the cost of litigation resulting from the lack of video evidence. The basic selection of a digital video system should be accomplished through an organized process. IT personnel should be included, and an agency plan of policy and procedure should be designed and instituted prior to the use of any systems.
Video recording is good for any agency. Conduct of both parties can be scrutinized
after any incident and the audio track alone should be very helpful in recreating
incidents. Video evidence is always going to back up the “good guy”.
Digital or analog formats both provide the same function; however the move to
digital storage further enhances the security and integrity of video and allows
for simple searching and viewing of any video file. Additional capabilities
are being designed, using optical and character recognition to aid the officer
in his job. Homeland security, terrorism threats, and poor-economy forced cutbacks
further burden an officers capabilities in the field and having a computer analyzing
faces or tag numbers can enhance an officers overall effectiveness. The initial
move to digital storage in the car will be the catalyst for these futuristic
P.O. Box 170
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Updated Monday, August 8, 2005 5:09 AM